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Friday, May 15, 2015

Notes of Chapter 10 – Reaching The Age Of Adolescence

Q 1: Define child.
A 1: A young human being below the age of full physical development is called a child.

Q 2: Define adult
A 2: A mature human being who is fully grown and developed is called an adult.

Q 3: What is adolescence?
A 3: The transitional period of physical and mental development which occurs between childhood and adulthood is called adolescence. In most simple words, the period of life between childhood and adulthood is called adolescence.
Another definition is: The period of life of a person when the body undergoes a lot of changes leading to reproductive maturity, is called adolescence.

Q 4: What changes in boys happen in adolescence?
A 4: Following changes happen in boys during adolescence:
-  Facial and body hair grow.
- Voice deepens and become hoarse (rough and heavy, low pitch).
- Testes start making sperms.

Q 5: What changes happen in girls during adolescence?
A 5: Some changes that happen in girls during adolescence are:
-          Breasts grow.
-          Ovaries start to release eggs (or ova).
-          Menstruation (monthly periods) begin.

Q 6: When does adolescence usually begins and last?
A 6: Adolescence usually begins around the age of 10 or 11 years and lasts up to 18 or 19 years. The period of adolescence, however varies from person to person. In girls, adolescence may begin a year or two earlier than in boys.

Q 7: Define adolescent.
A 7: A person who is in the process of growing from a child to an adult is called an adolescent. An adolescent can be a boy or a girl. Between the ages of 10 or 11 years and 18 or 19 years, the rapidly growing children are called adolescents.
Since the period of adolescence covers the ‘teen’ years (thirteen to nineteen years), therefore adolescents are also called ‘teenagers”.

Q 8: What is puberty?
A 8: The period during which adolescent boys and girls reach sexual maturity and become capable of reproduction is called puberty.

In other words, after attaining puberty, an adolescent (boy or girl) becomes capable of having a baby. Puberty is a period of several years in which rapid physical growth (or rapid growth) occurs leading to sexual maturity.

Q 9: When does puberty starts in boys and girls?
A 9: Puberty starts in boys at 12 to 14 years and at 10 to 13 years in girls. Generally, girls attain puberty at a lower age compared to boys.

Q 10: What are the various changes that occur in boys during puberty?
A 10: The various changes which occur in boys during puberty are as follows:
i). Hair grow on the face of boys (in the form of moustache and beard), and on chest
ii). Voice deepens in boys and becomes low pitched.
iii). Testes start to make sperms.
iv). Chest and shoulders of boys broaden (become wider).
v). Testes and penis becomes larger.
vi). Body becomes muscular (due to development of muscles).
vii). Hair grow in armpits and in public regions (genital area) between the thighs.
viii). Rapid increase in height occurs.
ix). Feelings and sexual drives associated with adulthood begin to develop.

Q 11: What are the various changes which occur in girls during puberty?
A 11: Following changes occur in girls during puberty:
i). Breasts develop and enlarge in girls.
ii). Ovaries start to release eggs (or ova).
iii). Menstruation (monthly periods) begin.
iv). Ovaries, oviducts, uterus and vagina enlarge.
v). Hips of girls broaden (become wider). Extra fat is deposited on hips and thighs.
vi). Hair grow in armpits and in public regions (genital area) between the thighs (This change is the same as in boys).
vii). Rapid increase in height occurs (This change is the same as in boys).
viii). Feelings and sexual drives associated with adulthood begin to develop (This change is also the same as in boys).

Q 12: What brings the changes in boys and girls at puberty?
A 12: All the changes which occur in boys and girls at puberty are brought about by various hormones.

Q 13: What is the most conspicuous change (clearly visible change) during puberty?
A 13: The most conspicuous change during puberty is the sudden increase in the height of boys and girls. Initially, girls grow faster than boys but by 18 years of age, both boys and girls reach their maximum height. Generally, the maximum height of girls is slightly less than that of boys.

Q 14: What is the formula to calculate the full height of a person which he or she will eventually reach?
A 14: The formula is:

Full height of a person = (Present height x 100)/ Percent of full ht.
We can use the unit of cm or m for height.

Q 15: A ten years old boy is 125 cm tall. If the present age of the boy is 78% of his full height, calculate the full height which the boy will eventually reach at the end o the growth period.
A 15: Here, Present age of boy = 125 cm
Percentage of full height = 78

Full height of a person = (Present height x 100)/ Percent of full ht.

= 160.25 cm
Thus, the full height of boy will be 160.25 centimetres.

Q 16: What does the height of a person mainly depends upon?
A 16: The height of a person mainly depends on the genes inherited from the parents. For example, if both the parents (or one of the parents) is very tall, the son or daughter is likely to be very tall. The height of a person is more or less similar to that of some family member.

Q 17: What are the changes in body shape and appearance in boys and girls brought about by the onset of puberty?
A 17: The changes are as follows:
i). Boys develop broader shoulders and wider chests than girls.
ii). Girls develop broader hips than boys. Due to this, the region below the waist becomes wider in girls.
iii). Boys develop more muscle than girls. So, the body of boys looks more muscular than that of girls.
iv). Girls develop breasts. This also changes the body shape of grown up girls and makes them look different from boys.
v). Boys develop Adam’s Apple (a bulge in front of throat visible from outside) which makes them look different from girls.
vi). Boys develop facial hair (moustache and beard) but the girls do not have facial hair. So, growth of facial hair make boys look different from girls.

Q 18: What changes in voice happens at puberty?
A 18: At puberty, the voice box (or larynx) begins to grow in boys as well as girls. The growth of voice box in boys is much more than the growth of voice box in girls. Due to this, the voice box in boys becomes much bigger than the voice box in girls.

The bigger voice box in boys gives deeper voice (or low pitched voice) to the boys.

In girls, the voice box (or larynx) is comparatively small in size due to which it is hardly visible from outside. So, girls do not develop Adam’s Apple at puberty. The smaller voice box in girls gives shrill voice (high pitched voice) to the girls.

Q 19: What is Adam’s Apple in a grown up boy?
A 19: The bulge (or projection) at the front of throat or neck in grown up boys is called Adam’s Apple. Adam’s Apple is formed in grown up boys because of their voice box in the throat. Thus, Adam’s Apple is a feature of throat (or neck) of grown up boys. It is a bulge (or bump) in the throat or neck.

Q 20: What are pimples?
A 20: Pimples are red spots on the face of a person.

Q 21: What is acne?
A 21: Acne is a skin condition marked by eruption of numerous red pimples on the face.

Q 22: What are sebaceous glands?
A 22: Sebaceous glands are the small glands in the skin which secrets an “oil” (called sebum) through skin pores to lubricate and protect the surface of skin. Sebaceous glands are commonly known as oil glands.

Q 23: Why are pimples and acne formed?
A 23: The pimples and acne are formed due to increased activity of sebaceous glands and sweat glands present in the skin. This happens as follows: The level of hormones in boys and girls rises too much at puberty. These hormones stimulate the sebaceous glands and sweat glands present in the skin. The increased activity of sebaceous glands (oil glands) caused them to secrets more oil and increased activity of sweat glands makes them secrete more sweat. 

The excess oil and sweat gets collected in the tiny pores of the skin.  The accumulation of oil, sweat and dead skin cells blocks the tiny pores in the skin of the face. Bacteria grow in the mixture of oil, sweat and dead skin cells  in the blocked skin pores causing the swelling and redness of the skin which leads to the formation of pimples.

Thus, pimples are caused by the clogged and infected skin pores. When outbreaks of too many pimples occur often, it is considered acne.

Q 24: What is sperm?
A 24: Male sex cells produced by testes are called sperms.

Q 25: What happens due to emotional maturity in adolescence?
A 25: Due to emotional maturity or intellectual development, the boys and girls get into the habit of reasoning and understanding things objectively. Adolescence is the time in one’s life when the brain has the greatest capacity for learning.

Q 26: What do you understand by emotional swings?
A 26: Changes in the body of boys and girls during adolescence may cause emotional swings. These swings lead to intense feelings such as joy, anger, boredom, worries or sadness which are not based on the reasoning or knowledge.

Q 27: What is meant by primary sexual characteristics in humans?
A 27: The sexual characteristics which are present at birth are called primary sexual characteristics. These include internal and external sex organs which are present in babies at the time of their birth. 

The primary sexual characteristics in males (or boys) are: Testes, Penis and Seminal vesicles (produces fluid that makes up a significant percentage of semen – have sperms) etc.

The primary sexual characteristics are directly involved in reproduction.

Q 28: What are the primary sexual characteristics in females (girls)?
A 28: The primary sexual characteristics in females (or girls) are: Ovaries, Oviducts, Uterus and Vagina etc.

Q 29: Explain in brief about secondary sexual characteristics in humans?
A 29: The sexual characteristics controlled by hormones which distinguish between mature males and females (sexually mature boys and girls) but are not directly involved in reproduction, are called secondary sexual characteristics.

For example: The growth of facial hair (like moustache and beard) in boys is a secondary sexual characteristic which helps to distinguish between a mature boy and a girl (because facial hair do not grow in girls). Similarly, the development of breasts in girls is a secondary sexual characteristic which helps to distinguish a girl from a boy (because boys do not develop breasts).

Q 30: How are secondary sexual characteristics in boys produced?
A 30: The secondary sexual characteristics in boys are produced by the male sex hormone called testosterone made in testes.

Q 31: How are secondary sexual characteristics in girls produced?
A 31: The secondary sexual characteristics in girls are produced by female sex hormone called Estrogen made in ovaries.

Q 32: What are hormones?
A 32: Hormones are the chemical substances which co-ordinate the activities of living organisms (including human beings) and also their growth. Hormones are made and secreted by specialised tissues in the body called endocrine glands. The hormones are poured directly into the blood and carried through out the body by the blood circulatory system.

Q 33: What are sex hormones?
A 33: The hormones involved in the development and control of the reproductive organs and secondary sexual characteristics are called sex hormones.

The two common sex hormones are Testosterone and Estrogen (Estrogen is also spelled as oestrogen).

Q 34: What are glands?
A 34: A gland is a structure which secretes a specific substance (or substances) in the body. A gland is made up of “a group of cells” or “tissue”. There are two types of glands in or body: exocrine glands and endocrine glands.

Q 35: What is an exocrine gland?
A 35: A gland which secretes its product into a duct (or tube) is called an exocrine gland. So exocrine glands are the glands having ducts. For example, the salivary gland secretes its product (saliva) into a duct called “salivary duct” therefore, salivary gland is an exocrine gland. Sweat glands and sebaceous glands (or oil glands) are also exocrine glands which release their secretions through ducts.

Q 36: What is an endocrine gland?
A 36: A gland which does not have a duct and secrets its product directly into the blood stream, is called an endocrine gland. Thus, endocrine glands are ductless glands.

An endocrine gland makes (and secrets) a chemical substance called hormone.  Some of the examples of endocrine glands (or ductless glands) in our body are pituitary gland, thyroid gland and adrenal glands.

Q 37: Which glands in human body function both as endocrine glands and exocrine glands?
A37: Some of the glands that function both as endocrine glands as well as exocrine glands are: pancreas, testes and ovaries.

Q 38: What is the role of pituitary gland?
A 38: The production of testosterone and estrogen is under the control of another hormone called gonadotropic hormone secreted by pituitary gland.

Q 39: What are the functions of testosterone?
A 39: Following are the functions of testosterone:
i). Produces male secondary sexual characteristic in boys at puberty (such as deeper voice; growth of facial hair, broad shoulders and chest; Adam’s Apple; and more muscles).
ii). Causes the growth and development of male sex organs at puberty.
iii). Causes sudden short period growth in boys at puberty.

Q 40: What are the functions performed by Estrogen?
A 40: The functions performed by estrogen are:
i). Estrogen hormone produces female secondary sexual characteristics in girls are puberty (such as shrill voice; development of breasts; and broader hips).
ii). Estrogen hormone causes the growth and development of female sex organs at puberty.
iii). Estrogen hormone brings about the monthly preparation of uterus for pregnancy.

Q 41: What is the reproductive phase of life in females?
A 41: In females (or women), the reproductive phase of life begins at puberty (10 to 12 years of age) and generally lasts till the age of approximately 45 to 50 years.

Q 42: What leads to birth of baby in woman?
A 42: With the onset of puberty, the eggs (or ova) begin to mature in the ovaries of a woman. One mature egg (or ovum) is released by one of the ovaries of the woman once in about 28 to 30 days. 

During this period, the inner lining of uterus grows and becomes thick and spongy, and prepares itself to receive the fertilised egg. 

So, in case the fertilisation of egg cells occurs by a sperm, the fertilised egg cell begins to divide to form an embryo. The embryo then gets embedded in the thick uterus lining. This results in pregnancy which ultimately leads to the birth of a baby.

Q 43: What happens if the fertilisation of egg cell does not take place?
A 43: If the fertilisation does not occur (due to lack of sperm), then the egg released by the ovary dies within a few days and the thick lining breaks down (because it is no longer required). Since the thick uterus lining contains a lot of blood vessels, therefore, the breaking down of uterus lining produces blood along with other tissues. This blood and other tissues come out of vagina of woman in the form of bleeding.

Q 44: What is menstrual flow or menstruation?
A 44: The bleeding from the uterus which occurs in a woman or mature girl every month (if the egg cell has not been fertilised) is called menstrual flow or menstruation.

Menstruation occurs in about 28 to 30 days (which is almost a month).

Q 45: What is monthly period in females (above 10 to 12 years of age)?
A 45: Menstruation in everyday language is called monthly period or just period. It is also called menses.

Q 46: For how much duration menstruation lasts?
A 46: Menstruation lasts for about 3 to 5 days in a month.

Q 47: What is menarche?
A 47: The first occurrence of menstruation (or periods) at puberty is called menarche. Menarche is the beginning of the reproductive life of a girl (or woman). In other words, menarche is the time from which a girl (or woman) becomes capable of having a baby.

Q 48: What is menopause?
A 48: The permanent stoppage of menstruation (or periods) in a woman is called menopause.

Menstruation stops permanently when a woman reaches the age of about 45 to 50 years.  With the permanent stoppage of menstruation, a woman loses her ability to bear children. 

Menopause is the end of reproductive life of a woman.

The reproductive life of a woman starts at menarche and ends at menopause.

Q 49: What is menstrual cycle?
A 49: the process of ovulation and menstruation in women is called menstrual cycle (because it occurs again and again after a fixed time period).

Initially, the menstrual cycle in girls may be irregular (it may not be of 28 to 30 days) but it becomes normal after some time.

Q 50: What is a chromosome and how many of them are there in human body?
A 50: Chromosome is the gene (hereditary unit – passed from parent to child) material found in the nucleus of human cells. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus of normal body cells.

Q 51: What are sex chromosomes and how many sex chromosomes are there in human body?
A 51: The two chromosomes that determine the sex of an offspring (or baby) are called sex chromosomes.
The two sex chromosomes are named X chromosome and Y chromosome.

Q 52: What types of sex chromosomes are there in males and females?
A 52: Males (or men), have half of gametes having X chromosomes and half of gametes having Y chromosomes.

In females (or women), all the gametes or all the egg cells (ova) contain X chromosomes.

Q 53: Which combination of chromosomes leads to birth of girl and boy?
A 53: The baby developed from XX combination of sex chromosomes in zygote is a girl. And the baby developed from XY combination of sex chromosomes in zygote will be a boy.

Q 54: How is the sex of a baby determined?
A 54: The sex of a baby to be born is decided at the moment the egg cell of a woman (mother) gets fertilised by the sperm of man (father) and pregnancy occurs.

The instructions for determining the sex of a baby (whether it will be a boy or girl) are present in the sex chromosomes which are in the nucleus of the fertilised egg called zygote.

The sex of baby is determined by the type of sex chromosomes present in the fertilised egg (or zygote) from which the baby develops.
i). If a sperm carrying X chromosome fertilises an egg cell (or ovum) which carries X chromosome, then the zygote formed will have XX combination of sex chromosome due to which the child born will be a girl (or female).
ii). If a sperm carrying Y chromosome fertilises an egg cells (or ovum) which carries X chromosome, then the zygote formed will have XY combination of sex chromosomes due to which the child born will be a boy (or male).

Thus the sex of unborn child (or unborn baby) depends on whether the zygote formed at the time of fertilisation has XX combination of sex chromosomes or XY combination of sex chromosomes.

XX combination of sex chromosomes makes the child a girl whereas XY combination of sex chromosomes makes the child a boy.

Q 55: How sperm of a man determines the sex of the child Or How is father (man or husband) responsible for the sex of the baby (boy or girl) which is born?
A 55: If the father (man or husband) contributes X sex chromosome at the fertilisation through his perm, the baby born will be a girl.

On the other hand, if the father (man or husband) contributes a Y sex chromosome at fertilisation through his sperm, then the baby born will be a boy.

Thus, it is the sex chromosome contributed by father (man or husband) which decides the sex of the baby which the mother (woman or wife) will give birth to.

Q 56: What is a myth?
A 56: A widely held but false belief is known as myth.
An important myth (wrong belief) in the minds of many people is that mother is responsible for the sex of her child (male or female). 

The scientific facts tell us that it is the father (or man) who is responsible for the sex of the child born (whether it is a boy or girl).

Q 57:  What is a taboo?
A 57: Something prohibited by social customs is called taboo.
An important taboo in the minds of many people is that a girl (or woman) should not be allowed to work in the kitchen during the days of menstruation (or periods). This taboo (or custom) is also absolutely wrong.. Menstruation is a natural process in girls (or women). There is absolutely no harm if a girl (or woman) works in the kitchen or goes out for other work during the days of menstruation. The only thing that the girl (or woman) should take proper care is of personal hygiene (body cleanliness) during the days of menstrual flow.

Q 58: What is marriage?
A 58: The formal union of a man and a woman by which they become husband and wife is called marriage.

Q 59: What is the legal age for marriage in India?
A 59: In India, the legal age (as per law) for marriage is 18 years for girls and 21 years for boys.

Q 60: What is reproductive health?
A 60: Reproductive health is defined as a state of physical, mental and social well-being of a person in all matters relating to the reproductive system at all stages of life.

Q 61: What are the important conditions to maintain good reproductive health during adolescence?
A 61: The important conditions to maintain good reproductive health during adolescence are:
i).It is necessary to eat balanced diet during adolescence.
ii). It is necessary to maintain personal hygiene during adolescence.
iii). It is necessary to take adequate physical exercise during adolescence.
iv). It is necessary to avoid taking drugs during adolescence.

Q 62: Define a balanced diet?
A 62: The diet which contains the correct amount of each constituent (such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals) sufficient for the normal growth and development of the body, and keep a person healthy, is called a balanced diet.

Our Indian meal of chapati (roti), rice, pulses (dal) and vegetables is a balanced meal. Milk is also a balanced food in itself. For infants (small babies), mothers milk provides all the necessary nourishment which they need.

Q 63: What are the various types of food items which should be included in the diet of adolescents so as to meet their nutritional needs?
A 63: The various types of food items which should be included in the diet of adolescents so as to meet their nutritional needs are:
i). Food items made from cereals like wheat and rice which provide carbohydrates for energy. Chapati (roti), bread, poori (made from wheat flour), cooked rice and its preparation like dosa, idli and biryani etc. provide carbohydrates for energy. Sugar and jaggery (gur) also contain carbohydrates that give us energy.
ii). Fats which also gives us energy. Common food items providing fat to our body are: butter, ghee, cooking oils (like groundnut oil, mustard oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil), vanaspati ghee, groundnuts and fatty meat.
iii). Food items containing proteins which are required for the growth of their body. The common food items which contain a lot of proteins are pulses (dal), peas, beans, cheese (paneer), eggs, lean meat (meat without fat), fish, milk and groundnuts.
iv). Fruits and vegetables which provide many vitamins and minerals necessary for keeping good health. Fruits and vegetables are called protective foods because they protect our body from many ailments by supplying various vitamins and minerals and help us stay healthy.

Q 64: Which mineral is necessary for making blood in the body?
A 64: Iron is a mineral which is necessary for making blood in the body. Iron is found in leafy vegetables, amla, meat and jaggery (gur).

Q 65: Which fruits provide vitamin C?
A 65: Citrus fruits like orange, lime and lemon contains vitamin C.

Q66: What is the function of vitamin C?
A 66: Vitamin C builds up body resistance and helps fight infections.

Q 67: Which vegetable contains vitamin A?
A 67: Carrot contain vitamin A.

Q 68: What is the function of vitamin A?
A68: Vitamin A is necessary for keeping healthy eyesight.

Q 69:  What contains lot of calcium mineral?
A 69: Milk contains a lot of calcium mineral which is necessary for making healthy bones for growing adolescents.

Q 70: Give examples of junk food.
A 70: Chips, packed (or tinned) snacks, burgers, vegetable cutlets and soft drinks are examples of junk foods.

Q 71: What is personal hygiene and why is it needed? What practices should be followed for personal hygiene by adolescents?
A 71: Keeping our body clean is called personal hygiene.
The maintenance of personal hygiene (or cleanliness) is necessary for adolescents for preventing diseases and keeping good health.

Following practices should be adopted by adolescents to maintain personal hygiene:
i). Adolescents boys and girls should take bath regularly at least once everyday. Though bath is good for everyone, it is more necessary for adolescents (or teenagers) because the increased activity of sweat glands and oil glands sometimes makes the body smelly. Bathing removes the sweat, oil and dirt etc. and cleans the body. During bathing, all parts of the body should be washed and cleaned everyday.
ii). Adolescent girls should take special care of cleanliness of the body during the time of menstrual flow (or periods).

Q 72: What will happen if personal hygiene is not maintained by adolescents?
A 72: If personal hygiene (or cleanliness of body) is not maintained by adolescent boys and girls, there are chances of catching bacterial infections. These infections make a person ill and spoil good health.

Q 73: Which physical exercises should be done by adolescents?
A 73: All the adolescent boys and girls should do following physical exercises:
i)     Brisk walking
ii)    Jogging (running)
iii)   Swimming
iv)   Cycling
v)    Dancing
vi)  Playing outdoor games like hockey, football, badminton, basketball etc.

Q 74: What are the beneficial effects of regular physical exercise?

A 74: The benefits of regular physical exercise are:
i). keeps the body fit.
ii). Improves the mental health.
iii). Protects from heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity.
iv). Builds and maintains healthy muscles, bones and joints.
v). Increases efficiency in studies, spots and work.
vi). Improves the general sense of well-being and makes a person feel happier.

Q 75: What are drugs?
A 75: Drugs are chemical substances which when taken into the body change the functions of the body, influence the mind and sometimes even change the behaviour of the person.
Some of the examples of drugs are heroin, cocaine, alcohol, paracetamol and penicillin. Drugs can be swallowed, inhaled or injected into the body.

Q 76: What are the harmful effects of taking drugs?
A 76: Following are the harmful effects of taking drugs:
i). Drugs are addictive. If someone takes drugs once, the person feels like taking them again and again.
ii). Drug addicts become irritable and lose interest in their studies or jobs. They may drop out of school or college, or lose job.
iii). Drugs can damage brain, liver, lungs and kidney.
iv). People taking drugs run the risk of accidents because they get confused.

Q 77: What is AIDS?
A 77: AIDS is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

Q 78: What causes AIDS?
A 78: AIDS is a dangerous disease which is caused by virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). This virus is present in the blood of AIDS patient.

Q 79: How can AIDS be passed on from infected person to a healthy person?
A 79: AIDS can be passed from infected person to healthy person in following ways:
i). By sharing of syringes used for injecting drugs.
ii). Through sexual contact with a person infected with HIV.
iii). Can be transmitted to an infant (small baby) from the infected mother through her milk.

Q 79: is there a cure for AIDS disease?
A 79: No, there is no cure for AIDS disease. AIDS patient die easily from simple diseases because AIDS virus weakens the immunity of their body due to which their body cannot fight even simple disease causing germs.

Q 80: What are the some of important hormones other than sex hormones?
A 80: There are many other hormones other than sex hormones. These are: Growth hormones, Thyroxine, Insulin and Adrenaline.

Q 81: Which gland secretes growth hormone?
A 81: Growth hormone is released by pituitary gland.

Q 82: Which hormone is secreted by thyroid gland?
A 82: Thyroxine hormone is secreted by thyroid gland.

Q 83: Which gland releases insulin?
A 83: Insulin hormone is secreted by pancreas.

Q 84: Which glands secrete Adrenaline?
A 84: Adrenaline is released by adrenal glands.

Q 85: Write the positions of major endocrine glands in the human body?
A 85: The positions of major endocrine glands in the human body are:
i). Pituitary gland: Just below brain
ii). Thyroid gland: In the neck
iii). Pancreas: Below stomach
iv). Adrenal glands: Above kidneys

Q 86: What happens due to deficiency of growth hormone in childhood?
A 86: A person having the deficiency of growth hormone in childhood remains very short and becomes a dwarf (abnormally small).

Q 87: Which gland is called the master gland?
A 87: Pituitary gland is called the master gland because many of the hormones which it secretes control the functioning of other endocrine glands in the body. Pituitary gland secretes hormones that make other endocrine glands such as testes, ovaries, thyroid gland, and adrenal glands to secrete their hormones.

Q 88: Which hormone is made by thyroid gland?
A 88: Thyroid gland makes a hormone called thyroxine which contains iodine.

Q 89: What is the function of thyroxine hormone?
A 89: Thyroxine hormone controls the rate of body’s metabolism (the chemical processes which occur continuously in human body to maintain life)

Q 90: What is needed constantly by thyroid gland in order to produce thyroxine hormone?
A 90: Iodine is needed constantly by thyroid gland to produce thyroxine hormone.

Q 91: Which disease is caused due to deficiency of thyroxine hormone?
A 91: The deficiency of thyroxine hormone causes a disease known as goitre.

Q 92: What is the main symptom of goitre disease?
A 92: The main symptom of goitre disease is that the neck of the person suffering from goitre appears to be swollen.

Q 93: What is advised to prevent people from goitre disease?
A 93: People are advised to use iodised salt for cooking food as to prevent goitre disease.

Q 94: What is the function of insulin hormone which is released by Pancreas?
A 94: The function of insulin hormone is to lower the blood sugar level or blood glucose level.

Q 95: Which disease is caused by deficiency of insulin hormone?
A 95: Diabetes is caused by deficiency of insulin hormone.

Q 96: How can common diabetes be controlled?
A 96: Common diabetes can be controlled by:
i). Controlling diet
ii). Reducing weight
ii). Doing regular physical exercise
iii). Taking medicines

Q 97: How are the persons having severe diabetes treated?
A 97: The persons having severe diabetes are treated by giving injections of insulin.

Q 98: What is the function of adrenaline hormone?
A 98: The adrenaline hormone prepares our body to function at maximum efficiency during emergency situations (like danger, fear, shock, surprise, anger or excitement, etc.).

Q 99: In addition to adrenaline, which other hormone is produced and secreted by adrenal glands?
A 99: The adrenal glands also produce and secrete another hormone called aldosterone.

Q 100:  What is the function of aldosterone hormone?
A 100: The function of aldosterone hormone is to maintain the correct salt balance in the blood.

Q 101: What is metamorphosis?
A 101: The change from tadpole (or larva) to the adult frog is called metamorphosis.

Q 102: In a frog, metamorphosis is brought about by which hormone?
A 102: In a frog, metamorphosis is brought about by thyroxine hormone which is produced by the thyroid gland.

Q 103: What controls the process of metamorphosis in insects?
A 103: The process of metamorphosis in insects such as silk moth is controlled by insect hormones.